Initial Public Offer: Types of IPO And Process To Invest

Initial Public Offer: Types of IPO And Process To Invest

By Yash


Investing in initial public offers in the financial markets has the possibility to give great returns to its investors. So, it is important to know about the process of investing and whether you are eligible to invest. You should also know why one should apply for the process and the types of IPO in the markets. Before making any investments in the initial public offers, it is vital to find out how the method of trading these shares differs from regular stock trading. This comes along with the additional rules and risks that are associated with the investments of initial public offers.

What is an Initial Public Offer?

When any private firm first sells its securities to the public, this process is called the initial public offer. This means that the ownership of the firm is going from private ownership to public ownership. For this very reason, the whole process is known as going public. The startup firm or firms running their business for a long time can choose to go public by using an initial public offering. Firms usually issue this to get capital to increase their overall public profile, fund further growth initiatives, or pay off their debts. They can even permit insiders from the firm to create liquidity or diversify their holdings by selling off their private shares as part of the process. In the process, after a firm chooses to go public, it opts to go for a lead underwriter. The latter helps with the registration process of the shares and distribution of them to the public. The underwriters then assemble some broker dealers, and investment banks called the syndicate.

They are responsible for selling the securities to individual and institutional investors. In addition to the initial public offering, there are several other new issues for firms with stocks already trading publicly. This includes follow-on offering, which is the issuance of more shares by the firm already trading in a public exchange. Any such offering dilutes the individual shareholding position of the investor of the firm. This is because new shares are being issued. The secondary offering is a registered sale of shares held by big investors that had already been previously issued. This includes a private firm or any other institution. Such an offering does not dilute the individual position of a shareholder. This is s because the shares were previously issued.

Know Everything About Initial Public Offering Before Investing

You may want to invest in the process. But it is vital to avoid getting caught up in the hype that surrounds any new firm. Many firms have come into the markets with huge expectations. But then they struggled and went out of business in a short time. Investors have become aware of all the risks when investing in the initial public offering. This happened during the tech stock boom and bust. That was a very speculative period in the history of the markets. There were many investors who got good profits from their investments in IPOs. But others got big losses after the shares of a lot of tech firms declined by a huge margin. Before making any investments, you must ensure you have done your due diligence. This can be tough because of the absence of easily available information to the public on a firm that is issuing shares for the first time in the financial markets. But you should also try to go through the preliminary prospectus of the firm. It is called the red herring. This document is given by the lead underwriter and the issuer.

It will include data on the management team of the firm, the financials of the firm, the competitive scenario, and the target market. You will also find out the number of shares, the potential risk, the expected range of price, and who has the shares at present.

Taking Part in an Initial Public Offering

When you decide to participate in the process, you buy the shares at the offering price before it starts to trade on the secondary market. This offering price is chosen by the issue and the lead underwriter based on a lot of elements. This also includes the indications of interest from people who want to invest in the offering. Before anyone can invest in the shares, you have to determine if the brokerage firm gives access to such new offerings and the eligibility requirements. Usually, experienced traders or high-net-worth individuals who know about the risk of taking part in the process are eligible. Individual investors have some difficulties in getting the shares of an issue because the demand is often more than the number of present shares. Because of the scarcity value of the initial public offering, several brokerage firms restrict who can take part in the offerings by requiring users to have a large number of assets in the company itself. It helps to meet some frequency thresholds and the maximum limit of trading. They may also have maintained a long-standing relationship with the company.

You must have done your research and then been allocated the shares through the process. Then it is vital to understand that you can sell the shears that you have got through the process when you find it appropriate to do so. But a lot of firms will limit your reliability to participate in any future offerings if you sell the shears within the first few days of trading itself. The practice of swiftly selling off the shares obtained is called flipping. This is something that is not liked by brokerage firms.


It can be very financially rewarding to take part in an initial public offering and invest in a newly public firm. But gains are not guaranteed, and many risks are involved. You may be new to the whole process. Then, you should review all of the educational materials regarding this before making any investments.