Understanding Quantitative Styles & Their Methodology

Author: Priyanka Saxena on Sep 23,2022
Quantitative Styles

When you invest in individual stocks, you're essentially buying a stake in that company. It's important to remember that, as an investor, you want the company to succeed. You hope that its stock price will rise over time. However, how will you know when something goes wrong with a stock that you own? That's where quantitative styles come in. Understanding these investing methods is essential if you are looking to invest in individual stocks. With quantitative investing styles, you can recognize and interpret the data correctly when analyzing any potential stocks for investment. Quantitative investing and analysis is a broad umbrella of methods in which investors attempt to uncover profitable opportunities. After all, one investor's trash can be another's treasure. However, some quantitative investment strategies are more widely used than others. For example, quantitative value investing has been around for decades and is widely adopted by the investment community. However, there are other quantitative styles that are less common and require more data mining and statistical analyses to uncover promising opportunities.

This article will cover the main quantitative styles, including their pros and cons and the methodology behind them. This list won't be exhaustive because so many investors prefer using qualitative primary research over quantitative analysis when considering new investments. But these quant strategies are among the most widely used methods to find profitable opportunities in investing today. Keep reading for more information about quantitative investing styles and how they can help your next stock purchase.


What is quantitative investing?


Quantitative investing is a form of investment analysis based on numbers. Quantitative analysts don't rely on fundamental analysis as some other types of analysts do. They use their statistics, probability, and financial modeling knowledge to analyze stocks, bonds, options, and other financial instruments.


Discriminant Analysis


Discriminant analysis is an analytical method that involves looking at the past performance of stocks to determine which ones are likely to outperform in the future. It involves measuring and analyzing a company's financial data and then looking at other companies in the same industry to see which ones have a similar profile to the company being analyzed. The advantage of this approach is that it can be applied to any industry and any company that you can get financial data on. This method does have drawbacks, however. Financial data can only be used as a guide for a company's future performance, and it doesn't always correlate with future performance. Additionally, there are companies that have unusual circumstances that cause their financial data to be misleading for analysts to use as a comparison. This method is often used by quantitative investors who use quantitative analysis to find stocks with a high probability of outperforming the market.




When applied to quantitative investing, mean reversion is the theory that financial markets move toward their long-term average or "mean" over time. Mean reversion is widely accepted as the best explanation for the cyclical nature of market prices. Mean reversion, in short, is the theory that financial markets tend to gravitate toward their long-term average or "mean" over time. If that sounds familiar, it should. That's the same logic behind value investing: buying shares of companies when they are priced below their "true" value. Quantitative investors who employ the mean reversion strategy are looking for situations where stocks are overpriced. They then wait for those stocks to revert to their mean price.


Machine Learning


Machine learning is a type of artificial intelligence that uses algorithms to train itself and learn from past data. Quant investors who apply machine learning to their research typically use data from the past to train their algorithms and explore which statistics are most relevant to predicting future stock returns. The most common variables in machine learning are price-to-earnings (P/E) ratios and price-to-book (P/B) ratios. Machine learning is a powerful tool that has the ability to identify previously unnoticed relationships. That gives it huge potential in the world of quantitative investing. But the sheer amount of data required to get it up and running means that it's not a tool used by most quant investors.


Quality Ratings and Scouting


Quality ratings and data are used by quantitative investors to find stocks that are undervalued based on the premise that companies with low debt, high cash flow, and high return on equity will outperform the market. These investors also look at how expensive these stocks are and how much growth is expected in the future. In essence, the quality ratings and data approach tries to predict which companies will be the best investments based on the financial information that is publicly available. That makes it similar to mean reversion in that both strategies seek out companies whose stocks are undervalued. The main difference between the two is that quality ratings and data are calculated based on what's currently available. In contrast, mean reversion is based on a comparison of a company's historical performance.


Sentiment Analysis


Sentiment analysis is the process of predicting future stock prices based on what people are saying about them. Quant investors who use this approach rely on news articles, social media chatter, and blogs. They use these sources to predict how stocks will perform in the short term (typically under six months). The goal is to buy stocks before they're positively covered in the media and sell them before the hype dies. The advantage of sentiment analysis is that it can be applied to any industry and doesn't require much data. That's also its main weakness. Because sentiment analysis relies on people's subjective thoughts and feelings, there's no guarantee that it will lead to profitable investments. The ability to accurately predict the price movements of stocks based on these subjective feelings is a big challenge for quantitative investors. That's why sentiment analysis is more of a "quick and dirty" approach to quant investing than a more rigorous strategy.




Quantitative investing is a broad term that covers many investment strategies. These quantitative styles heavily focus on past data and are often used for shorter-term trading. While every strategy has pros and cons, most quant strategies rely on computer models. This can make them prone to errors that humans wouldn't make. What's important to remember is that quantitative investing is not a one-size-fits-all approach. There's no one formula that will work for all investors and no one formula that will work for all stocks. Investors who choose to employ a quantitative strategy must be careful to select a method that fits their investment objectives, risk tolerance, and personality. Investing in any instrument in the financial market involves real money and is a little technical process. It is important to know some data about the instrument before investing money in it. In such a situation, the various quantitative styles play a huge role in influencing the decision-making of traders and investors in the financial markets. These are the tools that can be the deciding factor between profits and losses in the financial markets.